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      頭版關注福耀美國工廠,說了什么?
      2016/11/1


      導讀

      福耀集團全球最大單體汽車玻璃工廠的竣工,在美國刮起了一股“中國制造風”,在提供上千就業崗位,參與美國汽車工業的同時,這一高達6億美元的投資,也引起了美國當地媒體的關注?!度A盛頓郵報》記者在美國金秋慶典期間,對曹德旺董事長進行采訪,在她的視角下,福耀美國公司的建立對美國經濟和制造業回歸來說有什么樣的標志性意義呢?



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      《華盛頓郵報》本月27日頭版



      展望未來之路

      中國億萬富翁豪賭俄亥俄工廠

      創造上千個就業崗位


      《華盛頓郵報》   2016年10月27日

        記者 Ylan Q.Mui   圖片 Andrew Spear

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      9月29日,勞倫·哈特利(Lauren Hartley)在俄亥俄州莫瑞恩市的福耀玻璃工廠清潔并檢查玻璃。

      (安德魯·斯皮爾(Andrew Spear),《華盛頓郵報》)


      俄亥俄州莫瑞恩市——最近一天早上,在私人飛機降落俄亥俄州后不久,曹德旺,這位中國億萬富翁就動身驅車沿75號州際公路前往他所豪賭的工廠。他的籌碼還有美國鐵銹地帶這片沙礫之地的未來。

      這條俗稱為“汽車巷”的公路旁的龐大廠房是當地地標之一。通用汽車20世紀20年代在建起了這座工廠。幾代人以來,工廠一直為美國中間階級中的藍領階層創造著就業機會。然而,大批廉價進口產品和廉價外國勞動力對俄亥俄州和美國各地的工業城鎮造成了猛烈沖擊。隨著最后一輛SUV離開生產線,莫瑞恩市也難免淪陷的境地。

      現在,這座工廠的新主人是曹德旺。曹德旺在全球化浪潮中從貧困的農村脫穎而出,成為身價億萬,中國最大汽車玻璃生產商福耀集團的董事長。而正是這同一股浪潮擊垮了莫瑞恩,這種命運的逆轉使中國在公眾辯論和政治措辭中成為美國的主要經濟對手。共和黨總統候選人唐納德·特朗普(Donald Trump)最近在這個搖擺州停留,進行他的競選演說時,把對華貿易稱為“單向道”。

      世界經濟的力量對比再一次發生傾斜,但福耀工廠內部已經進入了全球化的新階段?,F在中國企業正在因喪失增長動力而讓專家們憂慮,這促使中國富有的投資者和企業前往海外尋求利潤。它們正在以前所未有的速度并購美國企業,并雇用數以萬計的美國工人。

      這一變化正在改變中美兩國的利益格局。在莫瑞恩,當地官員正在指望福耀能使這個由沿公路商業區和一元店組成的小鎮實現復興。但福耀很可能永遠也不能完全補償上一代所遭受的損失。

      然而,曹德旺董事長仍堅信,像福耀這樣的中國公司將消除兩國之間的經濟緊張局勢。在灰蒙蒙的天空和霏霏細雨之下,他來到了這座讓他花兩年時間和5億美元重建的工廠。在工廠大門外,美國國旗、俄亥俄州州旗與福耀的藍白色旗幟共同飄揚。

      “我們致力于使中美貿易關系受益,”他在一次訪談中通過翻譯說道,“我們將克服所有這些問題?!?/p>

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      曹德旺視察福耀工廠。


      曹德旺幾乎每個月都要來莫瑞恩,在工廠里走來走去,而這個龐大的工廠足以裝下41個橄欖球場。

      這座工廠是福耀在中國以外最大的投資項目,滿負荷運行時預計將有2,500人在此工作。曹德旺表示,希望這座工廠能夠成為福耀在美國積極擴張的基礎。此前,福耀已經在伊利諾伊州開設了一座生產原片玻璃的工廠,并在密歇根州設立了一座裝配工廠??偼顿Y額將達到約10億美元。

      “這個美國工廠就是他的孩子,”莫瑞恩工廠運營經理邁克·弗倫坎普(Mike Fullenkamp)表示。

      曹德旺是中國涌現出的第一批企業家,他的赤貧致富故事就是中國國情的寫照。曹德旺自幼家貧,由于經常一天只能喝兩碗湯,饑餓讓他發出痛苦的喊叫。

      “我經歷過中國最困難的時期,”現年70歲的曹德旺說。“即使我想哭也沒有眼淚?!?/span>


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      福耀玻璃俄亥俄州工廠。


      20世紀80年代中國經濟開放伊始,曹德旺接管了一家瀕臨倒閉的工廠,并瞄準中國規模迅速壯大的中產階級隊伍,將主業迅速轉向在汽車企業中越來越搶手的玻璃窗和擋風玻璃。最終,福耀實現了玻璃的對外出口。在福耀和其他企業構成的強大出口引擎的推動下,中國成為全世界僅次于美國的第二大經濟體。

      與此同時,美國的工業正在著衰退。俄亥俄州25年前曾擁有100多萬藍領工人。而現在,這一數字已經減少到70萬以下。

      大蕭條期間,通用汽車在2008年的圣誕節前夕關閉了莫瑞恩工廠,當天有大約1,000名工人丟掉了工作。龐大而低矮的廠房——是這些工人曾經工作過的地方就這樣荒廢了數年。


      中國對美出口額(單位:百萬美元)

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      數據來源:WAPO.ST/WONKBLOG


      衰退造成的破壞放大了當地許多選民長久以來因在全球經濟大潮中掉隊而感到的焦慮,而他們的失望情緒又助長了本次總統競選周期政治上的不滿情緒。本月在俄亥俄州參加競選活動期間,民主黨候選人希拉里·克林頓(Hillary Clinton)指責中國向美國市場傾銷鋼鐵。特朗普的言論則更為尖銳。

      “他們偷走了我們的工作,他們偷走了我們的企業,他們在搶我們的錢,”上周他這樣告訴俄亥俄州自己的支持者們?!岸覀冎皇O露酒?,債務,還有空空蕩蕩的工廠?!?/p>

      但俄亥俄州的實際情況要更為復雜。包括特朗普在總統預選中的對手約翰·凱西克(John Kasich,共和黨)州長在內的州政府官員向福耀承諾提供超過1千萬美元的撥款和激勵,成為有記錄以來最高水平的激勵措施之一。而作為回報,俄亥俄州的經濟收入將暴增2.8億美元。

      自從2014年宣布建廠規劃以來,福耀雇用的員工人數比計劃提高了兩倍。一家玻璃回收公司即將遷入附近新建的樓房。而在察覺到福耀員工帶來的客流量后,亞洲餐館CJ Chan’s也在福耀工廠附近開設了一家分店。

      “我意識到我們肩上的責任非常重大,”曹德旺在自傳中這樣寫到?!拔覀兯傅娜魏五e誤都會給我本人,福耀集團乃至全體中國人抹黑?!?/p>

      在中國,福耀可以讓工廠在開業后一年內實現滿負荷運轉。莫瑞恩工廠的建設則是2014年開始的。

      “我應該感到知足了,”曹德旺說道?!安贿^與我在中國開的工廠相比仍有很大差距?!?/p>

      員工聘用和工資待遇是莫瑞恩工廠面臨的兩個最大挑戰。福耀已經雇用了2,000名員工,并且正計劃再招幾百人。而該地區的失業率僅為4.4%,低于全國水平。這意味著可供我們選擇的范圍很小。歷年來下崗的工人有許多去了其他地方,也有許多人已經退休。此外,莫瑞恩在衰退后也經歷了持續的重建過程,引入了制造業之外的交通、衛生保健甚至科技等其他行業。這就加劇針對工人展開的競爭。

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      福耀工廠,一名工人拿著一塊玻璃。


      對福耀來說,至關重要的是要在保持現有員工隊伍穩定的同時提高他們的生產能力。工廠尚未成立工會,而工人的起薪為一小時約12美元。在最近在工廠與中美雙方高層主管舉行的一次會議上,曹德旺因未能及時調整公司的獎金制度,并為員工提供更誘人的津貼而感到失望。

      “是因為你們對我沒有信心,還是你們不尊重我?”曹德旺這樣問高管們?!拔覀冃枰吹叫袆?。行動是解決問題最簡單的對策?!?/p>

      中國的辦事方式也在發生著改變。在經歷過多年的兩位數增長后,中國經濟增速正在迅速放緩。全世界已經充斥著中國貨,從而減少了對中國產品的需求。上個月,中國出口額較前一年同期下降了10%。工資水平的提高以及中產階級的壯大意味著企業現在不能再依靠廉價勞動力來填補工廠的空缺。

      為了給下一輪增長提供更多動力,福耀以及其他中國企業不得不把目光投向國外。據經濟合作與發展組織統計,中國的對外直接投資從2005年的137億美元激增至2015年的1878億美元,增長了1,294%。咨詢公司榮鼎集團預計,今年上半年中國對美直接投資將達創紀錄的180億美元。

      “中國現在才開始逐步躋身于富裕國家的行列,”康奈爾大學貿易政策教授埃斯瓦爾·普拉薩德(Eswar Prasad)表示?!拔艺J為我們看到的是主流?!?/p>

      然而,在美國設立的公司并不必然會融入美國的社會。福耀表示,美國員工占員工總數的90%,其余10%是中國人。曹德旺向當地大學捐款,并接待松樹俱樂部(當地一家著名的牛排館)的客人來工廠參觀,這加深了福耀與俄亥俄州社區的聯系,盡管他本人并不吃牛肉。

      文化和語言方面也存在顯著的障礙。曹德旺總是言簡意賅,這讓翻譯有足夠的時間跟上他的節奏,但給人的感覺是更像是官方聲明而不是私下交談。在關于職工獎金制度的討論結束后,曹德旺宣布了第二天上午會議的時間并結束了會議。隨后,他走到外面吸了支煙,然后乘坐轎車返回酒店。

      曹德旺一路上凝視著窗外,但下午會議緊張的氣氛依然在他的腦海里揮之不去。

      “有時候,”他說,“我會沮喪得快要昏過去?!?/p>

      4.jpg

      福耀玻璃莫瑞恩市工廠。


      中國在世界各地越來越旺盛的投資需求引起了嚴格的審查。

      在美國,立法機構和監管機構以國家安全受到潛在威脅為由審查了多筆中國投資者參與的引人注目的交易。監管機構一再擱置中國保險公司安邦保險收購紐約著名的華爾道夫-阿斯多里亞(Waldorf Astoria hotel)酒店的計劃。美國總統和其他顯貴經常在該飯店下榻。他們否決了中國風險資本集團對荷蘭飛利浦公司旗下一家美國照明公司的收購提案。此外,立法機構還要求對中國對芝加哥證券交易所的收購實施審查。

      福耀并未面臨類似問題,但也曾陷入美國監管機構提出的反傾銷訴訟,并最終勝訴。正在進行的總統選舉往往會拿民眾對中國的憤怒作文章。在這樣的背景下,曹德旺表示相信新廠將有助于修補中美兩國之間的關系。

      “顯然,其中許多問題都有政治因素。我們對此早已習以為常,”他說?!拔覉孕盼镔|利益終將獲勝?!?/p>

      曹德旺也有想對美國說的話:衰退暴露了美國的核心問題:經濟不平等,政治僵局以及華爾街復雜的金融工程與莫瑞恩等地的工業生產之間不斷擴大的分歧。他表示,除非能再次迎合全世界的需求,否則美國不會實現真正意義上的復蘇。

      “為了實現長期繁榮,美國需要堅持成為制造業強國的夢想,”他在自傳中這樣寫到。







      《華盛頓郵報》英文原文


      A view of the road ahead

      A Chinese billionaire is staking his legacy — and thousands of American jobs — on this factory in Ohio


      By Ylan Q. Mui    October 26 ,2016


      MORAINE, OHIO — Shortly after his private plane landed in Ohio on a recent morning, the Chinese billionaire set off down Interstate 75 to inspect the factory on which he has staked his legacy and the future of this gritty patch of the American Rust Belt.

      The sprawling plant is a local landmark, just off the highway unofficially known as Auto Alley. General Motors built it in the 1920s, and for generations it created the kind of blue-collar jobs that defined America’s middle class. But by the time the last SUV rolled off the assembly line here, the city of Moraine had succumbed to the flood of inexpensive imports and cheap foreign labor that battered industrial towns in Ohio and across the country.

      Now Cho Tak Wong is in charge of the factory. The billionaire chairman of Fuyao Group, the biggest maker of automotive glass in China, Cho rose from rural poverty by riding the same wave of globalization that devastated Moraine — a living example of the reversal of fortune that has turned China into the United States’ chief economic rival in public debates and political rhetoric. At a recent campaign stop in this perennial swing state, Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump called trade with the country “a one-way street.”

      But the next chapter of globalization is already unfolding inside Fuyao’s factory, as the balance of power in the world economy tilts once more. Now it is China that experts fear is losing steam, forcing the country’s wealthy investors and corporations to seek out profits overseas. They are snapping up U.S. businesses at a record rate and employing tens of thousands of U.S. workers.

      The shift is realigning Chinese and U.S. interests. In Moraine, local officials are counting on Fuyao to help revitalize this town of strip malls and dollar stores. Yet it probably will never be enough to replace what has been lost over the past generation. Nor is it likely to restore the momentum that is slipping away in China’s economy.

      Still, Cho is convinced that such companies as his will ease the economic tensions between the two countries. Under gray skies and drizzling rain that day, he made his way to the factory that he has spent two years and a half-billion dollars renovating. The street it sits on has been renamed Fuyao Avenue. Outside the front entrance, the American and Ohio state flags fly alongside Fuyao’s blue-and-white banner.

      “We’re committed to working to benefit both the Chinese and American trade relations,” he said in an interview, speaking through a translator. “All these problems will go away.”


      Cho comes to Moraine almost every month to walk the floor of his factory, large enough to fit 41 football fields.

      The plant is Fuyao’s single biggest investment anywhere. As many as 2,500 people are expected to work here when the plant is at full capacity, and Cho said he hopes it will become the anchor for an aggressive expansion into the United States that has already included a factory in Illinois to make raw glass and a facility in Michigan to put the finishing touches on its products. The total investment has reached about $1 billion.

      “This U.S.A. is his baby,” said Mike Fullenkamp, operations manager of the plant in Moraine.

      Cho was among China’s first wave of entrepreneurs, and his rag-to-riches story mirrors the country’s own. Growing up in impoverished Fujian province under the strict communist regime of the 1960s and 1970s, Cho often ate only two bowls of soup each day, leaving him so hungry that he would scream in agony.

      “I’ve lived through the toughest times in China,” said Cho, now 70.

       “Even if I want to cry, I have no tears.”

      When China began opening up its economy in the 1980s, Cho took over a flailing factory and reconfigured it to produce the glass windows and windshields increasingly in demand among car companies catering to China’s swelling middle class. Eventually, Fuyao began shipping glass to other countries, feeding the mammoth engine of exports that transformed China into the second-largest economy in the world, behind only the United States.

      Meanwhile, U.S. industry was fading. Twenty-five years ago, more than 1 million people in Ohio held factory jobs. Now, that number is less than 700,000.

      GM shut down its plant in Moraine just before Christmas 2008, amid the Great Recession. About 1,000 workers lost their jobs that day, and the vast, low-slung plant where they once worked spent years in darkness.

      “When it was empty, it was really depressing-looking,” Moraine Mayor Elaine Allison said. “Here’s this monolith of building just empty, compared to how full of life it was back in the day.”

      The wreckage of the recession amplified the anxiety many voters here have long felt over getting left behind by the global economy, and their frustration helped breed the discontented politics of this presidential campaign cycle. At a campaign stop in Ohio this month, Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton called out China for dumping steel into the U.S. market. Trump was even more pointed.

      “They’re stealing our jobs, they’re stealing our companies, they’re taking our money,” he told his supporters in the state last week. “We have drugs, we have debt, we have empty factories.”

      But the reality in Ohio is more complicated. State officials — including Gov. John Kasich (R), who ran against Trump in the presidential primary — courted Fuyao with more than $10 million in grants and incentives, one of their biggest packages on record. In return, Ohio is anticipating a $280 million windfall for its economy.

      Since announcing its plans for a factory in 2014, Fuyao has tripled the number of workers it intends to hire. A glass recycling company is moving into a new building nearby. And Asian restaurant CJ Chan’s opened a second location near Fuyao after noticing an uptick in business from company employees — including Cho.

      “I came to realize that the responsibility on our shoulders was really weighty,” Cho wrote in his self-published autobiography. “Any mistake on our part would bring disgrace not only on me, but also on Fuyao Group and the Chinese people as a whole.”


      In China, Fuyao can run a factory at full capacity within a year after it opens. In Moraine, the company has been working on its plant since 2014.

      “I should be satisfied,” Cho said. “But in comparison to my plants in China, there’s still a large gap.”

      Two of the biggest challenges are hiring and pay. Fuyao has already brought on 2,000 workers and is seeking hundreds more — a challenge when the region’s unemployment rate is just 4.4 percent, below the national average, resulting in a smaller pool of available employees. Many workers who had been laid off over the years have since moved away or retired. In addition, Moraine has also steadily rebuilt after the recession, courting business beyond manufacturing — in transportation, health care and even technology — and that is increasing competition for workers.

      For Fuyao, that means it is crucial to hold on to existing employees and get them to produce more. The factory is not unionized, and pay starts at about $12 an hour. During a recent meeting at the factory with his top Chinese and U.S. lieutenants, Cho grew frustrated at delays in making the company’s bonuses more enticing for employees.

      “Is it because you don’t have confidence in me or don’t respect me?” Cho asked the executives. “We need to see action. Action is the most simple countermeasure to our problems.”

      China does things is changing, too. Its economy is rapidly slowing down after years of double-digit growth. The world is already awash in Chinese goods, reducing the demand for its products. Last month, exports plunged by 10 percent compared with a year earlier. Rising wages and a burgeoning middle class mean companies can no longer rely on cheap labor to fill their factories.

      To fuel the next wave of growth, Fuyao and other Chinese companies have to look beyond their country’s borders. Direct investment in foreign countries skyrocketed from $13.7 billion in 2005 to $187.8 billion a decade later — an increase of 1,294 percent, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Consulting firm Rhodium Group estimates that the United States alone received a record $18 billion during the first half of this year.

      “It’s only now that China is becoming a rich economy,” said Eswar Prasad, a professor of trade policy at Cornell University. “I think we’re seeing the leading edge.”

      Being in the United States does not make a company American, however. Fuyao said that while 90 percent of its employees are American, 10 percent are Chinese nationals. Cho has deepened relationships in Ohio by donating to the local university and entertaining clients at the Pine Club, a famous local steakhouse — even though he doesn’t eat beef.

      Yet the cultural and language barriers are high. Cho rarely speaks more than necessary, giving his translators plenty of time to keep up but leaving his statements feeling like formal pronouncements rather than casual conversation. After discussing new plans for worker bonuses, Cho wrapped up the meeting with his executives by scheduling another one the next morning and then went outside to smoke a cigarette. He got into a car to head back to the hotel.

      Cho gazed out the window along the way, but the tension of the afternoon’s meeting on his mind.

      “Sometimes,” he said, “I get so frustrated that I am almost half dead.”


      Around the world, China’s growing appetite for investment is attracting intense scrutiny.

      In the United States, lawmakers and regulators have examined several high-profile deals by Chinese investors as potential threats to national security. Regulators held up plans by Chinese insurance firm Anbang to purchase New York’s famed Waldorf Astoria hotel, which often accommodates the president and other dignitaries. They scuttled a bid by a Chinese venture capitalist for a U.S. lighting company owned by Netherlands-based Philips. And lawmakers have called for reviews of a Chinese offer to buy the Chicago Stock Exchange.

      Fuyao has not had to confront those concerns, but it has tangled with U.S. regulators in the past over anti-dumping charges that were eventually reversed. Now, amid a presidential election that has often exploited anger against China, Cho said he believes the new factory can help repair relations with the United States.

      “A lot of this is politics, obviously. We’re also used to it,” he said. “I firmly believe that ultimately substance will win out.”

      Cho has a message for the United States, too: The recession exposed the nation’s fault lines: economic inequality, political gridlock and a widening chasm between the complex financial engineering on Wall Street and industrial production in places like Moraine. The United States will not truly recover, Cho said, until the country is once again making things that are in demand around the world.

      “To seek long-term prosperity, the U.S. needs to forge its dream of becoming a power of manufacturing,” he wrote in his autobiography.

       


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